How Does School-Wide Positive Behavior Develop Students’ Positive Behavior?


This study was aimed to guide students in order to use their smartphone for study needs primarily in classroom learning activities using School-Wide Positive Behavior Support (SWPBS). Classroom Action Research and Spiral Self-Reflective as its design was used as a research method. The research process was conducted in 2 cycles where each cycle comprised planning phase, action phase, and reflection phase. Respondents were selected purposively to be members of group counseling and individual counseling as forms of SWPBS. All data were collected through questionnaire, observation, and interview technique. After receiving counseling services, students have awareness and willingness to not use their smartphone unless it is permitted by teachers for the learning medium or browsing learning resources.


Group Counseling, Individual Counseling, School-Wide Positive Behavior, Smartphone use.


  1. Bliese, J. (2013). The Effects of School-Wide Positive Behavior Supports, Dissertation, Baker University, Graduate Department and Faculty of The School of Education.
  2. Bradshaw, C., Debnam K., Koth, C. and Leaf, P. (2009). Preleminery Validation of The Implementation Phases Inventory for Assessing Fidelity of School-Wide Positive Behavior Supports, Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 11(3), 145-160.
  3. Bradshaw, C., Koth, T. and Leaf. (2009). Altering School Climate Through School-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports: Findings from a Group-Randomized Effectiveness Trial, Prevention Science, 10, 100-115.
  4. Bradshaw, C., Mitchell, M. and Leaf, P. (2010). Examining the Effects of School-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) on Student Outcomes: Results from a Randomized Controlled Effectiveness Trial in Elementary Schools, Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 12 (3), 133-148.
  5. McIntosh, K., Flannery, K. B., Sugai, Ge., Braun, D. and Cochrane, K. (2008). Relationships Between Academics and Problem Behavior in the Transition From Middle School to High School, Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions. DOI: 10.1177/1098300708318961.
  6. Bromley, K. (2012). Using Smartphones to Supplement Classroom Reading, The Reading Teacher, 66 (4), 340-344. DOI: 10.1002/TRTR.01130.
  7. Coffey, J.H. and Horner, R.H. (2012). The Sustainability of Schoolwide Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports, Exceptional Children, 78 (4), 407-422. DOI: 10.1177/001440291207800402.
  8. Gage, N. A., Sugai, G., Lewis, T.J. and Brzozowy, S. (2013). Academic Achievement and School-Wide Positive Behavior Supports, Journal of Disability Policy Studies. DOI: 10.1177/1044207313505647.
  9. Horner, R.H., Sugai, G. and Anderson, C.M. (2010). Examining the Evidence Base for School-Wide Positive Behavior Support. Focus on Exceptional Children, 42 (8), 2-16.
  10. Hur, J.W. and Oh, J. (2012). Learning, Engagement, and Technology: Middle School Students’ Three-Year Experience in Pervasive Technology Environments in South Korea, Journal of Educational Computing Research, 46 (3), 295-312.
  11. Jovilette, K., et al. (2014). School-Wide Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports in Residental School for Students With Emotional and Behavioral Disorder: First Years of Implementation and Maintenance Follow-Up Focus Groups, Residental Treatment for Children & Youth, 31 (1), 63-79. DOI: 10.1080/0886571X.20.
  12. Lee, E.B. (2014). Facebook Use and Texting Among African American and Hispanic Teenagers: An Implication for Academic Performance, Journal of Black Studies. DOI: 10.1177/0021934713519819.
  13. Mc.Intosh, K., Bennet, J.L. and Price, K. (2011). Evaluation of Social and Academic Effects of School-Wide Positive Behavior Support in a Canadian School District, Exceptional Education International, 21 (1), 46-60.
  14. Miranda, T., et al. (2011). Reluctant Readers in Middle School: Successful Engagement With Text Using the E-Reader, International Journal of Applied Science and Technology, 1 (6), 81-89.
  15. Nelson, J.R., Hurley, K., Synhorst, L. and Epstein, M. (2008). The Nebraska Three-Tiered Behavioral Prevention Model Case Study, School-wide Prevention Models: Lesson Learned in Elementary School, New York, Guilford.
  16. O’Bannon, B. and Thomas, K. (2014). Teacher Perceptions of Using Mobile Phones in the Classroom: Age Matters!, Computers & Education, 45, 15-25. DOI: 10.1016/j.compedu.2014.01.006.
  17. Sailor, W., Dunlap, G., Sugai, G, and Horner, R. (2009). Handbook of Positive Behavior Supports, New York, Springer.
  18. Tillmann, N., et al. (2012). The Future of Teaching Programming is on Mobile Devices, ITiCSE ’12 Proceeding of the 17th ACM Annual Conference on Innovation and Technology in Computer Science Education, ISBN: 978-1-4503-1246-2, 156-161, DOI: 10.1145.2325296.2325336.
  19. West, D. M. (2013). Mobile Learning: Transforming Education, Engaging Students and Improving Outcomes, Center for Technology Innovation, September, 1-17.